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currency: Riyal (QAR)
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Qatar profile
strategic location in central Persian Gulf near major petroleum deposits
Qatar history
Ruled by the Al Thani family since the mid-1800s, Qatar transformed itself from a poor British protectorate noted mainly for pearling into an independent state with significant oil and natural gas revenues.

During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the Qatari economy was crippled by a continuous siphoning off of petroleum revenues by the Amir, who had ruled the country since 1972.

His son, the current Amir HAMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani, overthrew him in a bloodless coup in 1995.

In 2001, Qatar resolved its longstanding border disputes with both Bahrain and Saudi Arabia.

As of 2007, oil and natural gas revenues had enabled Qatar to attain the highest per capita income in the world.

Qatar has not experienced the level of unrest or violence seen in other Near Eastern and North African countries in 2010-11, due in part to its immense wealth.

Qatar's international image is bolstered in part by the Doha-based Al Jazeera news network, which has provided comprehensive coverage of the Near East and North African Arab revolutions.

Additionally, Qatar played a significant role in the Libyan revolution by pressing the Gulf Cooperation Council and the Arab League to assist the Libyan rebel movement.
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Conventional long form: State of Qatar

Conventional short form: Qatar

Local long form: Dawlat Qatar

Local short form: Qatar
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Qatar's capital city is Doha
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Qatar Constitution:

ratified by public referendum 29 April 2003;

endorsed by the Amir 8 June 2004,

effective 9 June 2005
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Qatar population growth rate: 4.93%
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Qatar highest point: Tuwayyir al Hamir 103 m
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Qatar lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
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About 2% of Qatar's land is arable.
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Qatar birth rate is 10 births/1,000 population
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Qatar infant mortality rate is 7 deaths/1,000 live births
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Qatar fertility rate is 1.92 children born/woman
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Qatar climate:

arid;

mild, pleasant winters;

very hot, humid summers
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Top 10 cities of Qatar with populations (2012 est.) are:
1. Doha: 1,450,000
2. Al Rayyan: 444,557
3. Umm Salal: 31,975
4. Al Khor: 31,547
5. Al Wakrah: 31,441
6. Al Jumaliyah: 13,085
7. Mesaieed: 9,870
8. Jariyan al Batnah: 6,308
9. Madinat ash Shamal: 5,400
10. Al Ghuwariyah: 2,159
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Qatar ethnic groups:

Arab - 40%

Indian - 18%

Pakistani - 18%

Iranian - 10%

other - 14%
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Qatar Exports:

liquefied natural gas (LNG)

petroleum products

fertilizers

steel
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Qatar Imports:

machinery and transport equipment

food

chemicals
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unicameral Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura (45 seats; 15 members appointed; 30 members to be elected by popular vote beginning mid- or late 2013, per the 2003 constitutional referendum)

Administrative Divisions:
7 municipalities (baladiyat, singular - baladiyah).
1. Ad Dawhah
2. Al Khawr wa adh Dhakhirah
3. Al Wakrah
4. Ar Rayyan
5. Ash Shamal
6. Az Za'ayin
7. Umm Salal